Fremier, A.K., DeClerck, F., Bosque-Pérez, N., Estrada Carmona, N., Hill, R., Joyal, T., Keesecker, L., Klos, P. Z., Martínez-Salinas, R., Niemeyer, Sanfiorenzo, A., Welsh, K., Wulfhorst, J.D. (2013). Understanding spatial-temporal lags in ecosystem services to improve incentive mechanisms and governance: Examples from Mesoamerica and river-riparian systems. Bioscience 63: 472-482, doi:10.1525/bio.2013.63.6.9.
Ecosystem-service production is strongly influenced by the landscape configuration of natural and human systems. Ecosystem services are not only produced and consumed locally but can be transferred within and among ecosystems. The time and distance between the producer and the consumer of ecosystem services can be considered lags in ecosystem-service provisioning. Incorporation of heterogeneity and lag effects into conservation incentives helps identify appropriate governance systems and incentive mechanisms for effective ecosystem-service management. These spatiotemporal dimensions are particularly apparent in river-riparian systems, which provide a suite of important ecosystem services and promote biodiversity conservation at multiple scales, including habitat protection and functional connectivity. Management of ecosystem services with spatiotemporal lags requires an interdisciplinary consideration of both the biophysical landscape features that produce services and the human actors that control and benefit from the creation of those services. © 2013 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.